Surgical method is the preferred treatment options for cervical cancer. Because most cervical cancers are found early, surgical removal offers an excellent chance at curing the patient. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers that affect a woman’s reproductive organs. Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cases of cervical cancer. India offers complete medical facility specializing in many disciplines that was built especially to cater medical tourists. It has some of the best hospitals of the world especially for cancer treatment.
Gynecologists procedures based on the stage of disease and the needs of the patient. The following cervix cancer surgical procedures may be used as part of cervical cancer treatment.
- Cervical cone biopsy (conization): Patients with early stage cervical cancer may have a procedure called a conization, which removes a cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix. Patients receive local anesthesia for this surgery. An advantage of conization includes the ability of this procedure to identify which early stage cervical cancers are invasive, as the surgeon would also remove a margin of healthy tissue. Women may choose conization over hysterectomy to preserve fertility if doctors give them an option.
- Laser surgery: Laser surgery is a procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor.
- Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP): Some patients with very early cervical cancer are candidates for loop electrosurgical excision procedure. This treatment modality uses a thin wire loop as the surgeon’s cutting tool. The doctor passes an electric current through the loop, which allows him to slice off a very thin layer of abnormal tissue. If a woman has had multiple LEEP procedures, and doesn’t have enough cervical tissue remaining for another LEEP, she may need a hysterectomy.
- Cryosurgery: Gynecologist kills cancerous and precancerous cells by freezing them. The instrument kills cancer cells with liquid nitrogen or carbon dioxide. Although cryosurgery causes side effects including cramping or bleeding, it doesn’t cause infertility. The only surgical cut the doctor must make is a small incision to insert the freezing instrument, or cryoprobe.
- Pelvic Exenteration: Gynecologist may recommend exenteration if you have an advanced cancer that has spread to organs next to the cervix but not to distant parts of the body, or when following previous treatment. This surgery involves removal of the uterus, cervix, lymph nodes and possibly the bladder, vagina, rectum and part of the colon.
- Simple hysterectomy: In this procedure, your surgeon removes your cervix and uterus.
- Radical hysterectomy: In this procedure, your surgeon removes your cervix, uterus and surrounding tissue.
- Lymphadenectomy: In a lymphadenectomy, your surgeon removes the lymph nodes that drain the cervix.
- Reconstructive surgery: Often used to treat advanced cases of cervical cancer, reconstruction may be necessary for the vagina, bladder, pelvic floor and parts of the pelvis.
The goal of cancer of cervix surgery is to permanently cure the cancer or to bring about a complete remission of the disease. The benefits of cervical cancer screening are substantial. Pre-cancer conditions are completely curable when followed up and treated properly. The chance of being alive in 5 years (5-year survival rate) for cancer that has spread to the inside of the cervix walls but not outside the cervix area is 92%.
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